Azygos Vein – This is the vein which shows blockage in 86% of MS patients tested by Dr Zamboni. The vein running up the right side of the thoracic vertebral column of the spine; takes deoxygenated blood from the posterior walls of the thorax and abdomen into the superior vena cava vein. It is called azygos,
because it doesn’t have a partner vein on the left side of the body…it is unpaired.
CCSVI – Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency – The medical condition termed by Dr. Paulo Zamboni; a condition where deoxyginated bloodflow from the veins surrounding the brain and spine is slowed or blocked in its return to the heart; condition arises from blockage in the internal jugular and/or azygos veins; the cerebrospinal system is the brain and spine; (chronic venous insufficiency or CVI is a medical term referring to blockage in return of blood from the legs to the heart).
Endovascular Procedure – originally designed as a way to diagnose problems in blood vessels – it is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used to place the stents in the veins; a catheter is injected into a major vein near the groin, using dye, it can be seen on live x-ray as it travels up the body.
Internal Jugular Veins – major veins collect blood from the brain, the outside of the face and the neck; they run down the inside of the neck – outside the internal and common carotid arteries and unite with the subclavian vein to form the innominate vein.
Interventional Radiologist - a subspecialty of radiology in which minimally invasive procedures are performed using image guidance; some are done for purely diagnostic purposes while others are done for treatment purposes (e.g., stent placement); pictures are used to direct these procedures, which are usually performed with needles or other tiny instruments like small tubes called catheters; the images provide road maps that allow the Interventional Radiologist to guide the instruments through the body to the areas of interest.
Magnetic Resonance Venography (MRV) – The type of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used to visualize veins; MRV uses the same machine as an MRI, but a special computer software allows it to only extract generated-by-blood images, as it flows through the veins; these images give doctors a rough idea of whether blood flow through a vein of interest is affected by blood clots or other disease processes.
Reflux – the backing up of blood into brain and spine, caused by blockage in the veins.
Stenosis – literally means “narrowing;” a blockage in veins caused by an abnormal narrowing of the vein itself.
Stent – a man-made ‘tube’ constructed of mesh metal, inserted into the vein to prevent, or counteract, a localized flow constriction.
Vein – the blood vessel that carries deoxyginated blood back to the heart.
Venography (also called phlebography) – a procedure in which an x-ray of the veins, a venogram, is taken after a special dye is injected into the veins.